Geodesia et Descriptio Terrarum (Geodezja i Kartografia) 12 (1) 2013
TEMPORAL SPATIAL PROPERTY REGISTRATION IN A MULTIDIMENSIONAL REAL ESTATE CADASTRE – POTENTIAL CHANGES TO THE EXISTING MODEL
Keywords: real estate cadastre, 3D real estate, three-dimensional property rights, 3D parcel
This article presents the possible legal aspects of introducing the concept of threedimensional real estate (spatial parcel) into the Polish legal system and the need to more precisely define the spatial boundaries of property rights. This issue is presented with reference to the legal principles that exist in the US, Sweden and Norway. The need for new institutional arrangements is preceded by a discussion of the current registration policy in Poland for the individual ownership of buildings and the establishment of rights of usage. The article also includes comments on the necessity of establishing a multi-dimensional real estate cadaster that enables the registration of individual spatial properties (including the particulars of buildings, structures, locations, constructed sites, and technical infrastructure), all associated legal rights and a three-dimensional visualization.
IMPACT OF ROAD DEVELOPMENT ON ARABLE LAND USING THE EXAMPLE OF THE ŻYRAKÓW – PASZCZYNA SECTION OF THE A4 MOTORWAY
Stanisław Bacior, Izabela Piech
value of farm lands, influence of highways, spatial arrangement of agricultural farm, arable land quality
This paper presents a simplified method of assessing the impact of building motorways on arable lands and makes it possible to determine losses connected with motorway construction. The basis for determining losses is an analysis of variations in land use, soil quality classes, and the layout of agricultural roads along the axis of the designed motorway. The assumed measurement of the multilateral impact of motorways on agricultural lands is the reported change in land value, taking into consideration only the differences in the designations of usefulness for agricultural production. Land value is thus a measurement of the availability of land for agricultural production. The presented method of evaluating the impact of motorways on arable land uses the section of the A4 motorway between Tarnów and Rzeszów, which is 12.088 kilometres long and goes through the villages of Żyraków, Kędzierz, Pusytnia, Brzeźnica, and Paszczyna. These areas are located in the Podkarpackie Province. One kilometre of the constructed motorway under study resulted in a decrease in arable land of 1926 grain units. The incorporation of arable land for the construction of motorways and the resulting negative environmental impact accounts for around 76% of the total loss of agricultural land value. The remaining 24% of the loss in land value is associated with the increase in transportation and from a less beneficial consolidation of plots.
Contemporary sonar systems are used mainly to search for and detect underwater objects which might affect the safety of navigation or the safety of moored watercraft. The task of the sonar operator is to display the optimal settings of the sonar image and to select the proper operational parameters that enable detection and identification of hidden targets. The operator performs corrections of the recorded sonar data, thereby improving the image quality and the ability to interpret the survey results. The paper deals with the research problem of changing display images, conducting geometric corrections, and extracting objects from the sonar imagery background. The presented method for the automatic searching of objects utilizes the morphologic features of sonograms and geometric and arithmetic methods of digital signal processing. In searching for the features of a sonar target, the minimal-distance methods used in pattern recognition were applied. The developed application makes it possible to perform research experiments that follow the stages of sonar detection of objects. The obtained results can indicate the validity of the research assumptions and the appropriateness of the methods used.