Geodesia et Descriptio Terrarum (Geodezja i Kartografia) 11 (1) 2012
APPLICATION OF THE LASER PLUMMET TO MEASURE
Kazimierz Ćmielewski, Piotr Gołuch, Krzysztof Kowalski, Janusz Kuchmister
laser plummet, engineering survey of elongated objects, CCD camera
In surveying work the designation of straightness of elongated objects is done by method of constant straight, which requires an instrument setup over a given point. For the implementation of this task, you can use a plummet properly rectified. The minimum length to the target is a characteristic parameter of each instrument. This value limits location of the measurement points. In the conditions prevailing on the engineering objects it is often not possible to offset the instrument from the test object. At that time the first measurement points can be measured only after setting the instrument at the final point of constant straight. The method presented in this paper to measure the position of points relative to a specific fixed straight uses a light beam emitted by a laser plummet from a Leica TC407 total station. To use laser the beam of the plummet to measure points located at distances from zero to several meters from the position of the instrument by constant straight method additional instrumentation was applied. The additional equipment includes: collimating mirror, CCD adapter and computer. Preliminary research showed that for distances of 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 m measuring points on the instrument were obtained respectively from 0.03 to 0.08 mm.
Thematic scope of spatial data – both topographical and geographical – presented on maps is enormous. It can embrace processes and phenomena that occur as discrete or continuous, that are measured in nominal, ordinal, interval or ratio scales. It is also important if the data is absolute or relative. Visualization of such data variety is a process which involves choice of both proper cartographic methods and graphic variables. The role of a map in analysis of spatial structure is not only a visual assessment (most often in an ordinal scale), but what is more important, a map presents a source data used in investigation on characteristics and regularity of spatial data distribution. The research aimed to explain occurrence of a particular spatial pattern and their local and regional changeability. The quantitative indicators of spatial structure (e.g. indicators of homogeneity, diversity) as the result of spatial analysis are presented in a form of cartographic models. The visualization of the outcomes allow for more detailed recognition and description of spatial structure of the phenomena. Among the methods of cartographic presentation, in the paper there are used: choropleth map, geometric choropleth map, dasimetric map and isoline map. These cartographic presentations constitute the models of various characteristics of spatial patterns and relationships. The methods of modeling and presentation of analysis presented in the paper, refer to real distribution of phenomena. Therefore it considers their local and regional variation, that is of great importance for practical aspect of research.
GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM AS A TOOL FOR DECISION MAKING – REASERCH AMONG WORKERS OF URBAN GMINAS OF ŁÓDŹ METROPOLITAN AREA
geographical information system, Łódź Metropolitan Area, information society
Geographical information systems are becoming increasingly common form of presentation and spatial data management. Area of use of geographical information systems are also gminas, where with the help of these tools it is possible to make strategic decisions and make a lot of administrative decisions. The paper presents results of studies conducted in six urban gminas of the Łódź Metropolitan Area. Analysis of research results, presented in the article, allow to identify target groups of users of geographical information systems in gminas. In this way it becomes possible to determine the scope of information about the opportunities and directions for use of spatial information in many different areas of the city which officials have. The research verify if in the departments dealing with land use planning, real estate, infrastructure, economic development, promotion and crisis management officials use the geographical information systems. Direct interviews indicate how many areas of community management can be supported through the use of GIS.