Acta Scientiarum Polonorum

Scientific paper founded in 2001 year by Polish agricultural universities

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Technologia Alimentaria
(Technologia Żywności i Żywienia) 5 (1) 2006
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TitleEDIBLE MUSHROOMS AS A SOURCE OF VALUABLE NUTRITIVE CONSTITUENTS
AutorEmilia Bernaś, Grażyna Jaworska, Zofia Lisiewska
Pages5–20
Keywordsedible mushrooms, nutritious value, largeness of consuming, production
AbstractShow abstract
An overview of Polish and foreign literature concerning the chemical composition of edible mushrooms both cultivated and harvested in natural sites in Poland and abroad is presented. 100 g of fresh mushrooms contains 5.3-14.8 g dry matter, 1.5-6.7 g of carbohydrates, 1.5-3.0 g of protein and 0.3-0.4 g of fat. Mushrooms are a high valued source of mineral constituents, particularly potassium, phosphorus and magnesium and of vitamins of the B group, chiefly vitamins B2 and B3 and also vitamin D. The aroma of the discussed raw materials is based on about 150 aromatic compounds. The mushrooms can be a source of heavy metals and radioactive substances. They are also characterized by the occurrence of numerous enzymes.

TitleCHIRALITY AND THE NATURE OF FOOD AUTHENTICITY OF AROMA
AutorRenata Zawirska-Wojtasiak
Pages21–36
Keywordschiral compounds, enantiomers, organic food, aroma, authenticity control
AbstractShow abstract
The phenomenon of chirality, common in nature, pertains also to food components. The effect of the chiral structure of chemical compounds is the occurrence of optical isomers, i.e. enantiomers. The only source of optically active substances are living organisms, which produce most frequently mostly one of isomers. Proteins and carbohydrates are chiral: amino acids are found in proteins only in the L form, whereas carbohydrates are formed of D-saccharides. Enantiomers may exhibit diverse behaviour in reactions with biologically active compounds of living organisms. Chiral structure of proteins turned out to be significant in the perception of taste perceptions as well as the perception of aroma. The most characteristic phenomenon is chirality among odorants. Numerous compounds essential for aroma are found in nature in the form of two isomers, with considerable predominance of one of them, while the ratio of these isomers is specific and stable. Enantiomers of odorants may differ in the intensity and character of their smell. The phenomenon of chirality has been known since mid-1800; however, it then constituted a serious analytical problem. Only the development of methods facilitating the separation of optical isomers created a possibility to investigate its universality and importance in living organisms. The application of more and more advanced analytical techniques in the control of chiral nature of food ingredients may be used to detect adulterations and especially to determine authenticity of fragrances.

TitlePREDICTING THE STABILITY OF ADVOCAAT TYPE EGG LIQUEURS ON A BASE OF SELECTED EVALUATION INDICATORS
AutorTomasz Tarko
Pages37–45
Keywordsegg liqueurs stability, emulsion creams
AbstractShow abstract
Attempts to work out a test for predicting the stability of Advocaat egg liqueurs revealed that centrifuging method appeared to be the most efficient in their quick destabilization. Measurements of conductivity, lipid droplet diameter as well as imbalance of emulsion with MgSO4 addition may also be used as auxiliary indicators for evaluating the predicted stability of alcoholic egg emulsions. Making several tests at the same time is a condition for evaluation of credible liqueur stability time.

TitleINFLUENCE OF SELECTED ADDITIVES ON COLOUR STABILITY OF ALCOHOLIC EGG LIQUEURS
AutorTomasz Tarko, Tadeusz Tuszyński
Pages47–60
Keywordsemulsion creams, colour stability, food additives
AbstractShow abstract
Addition of anti-oxidative agents into the liqueurs (particularly 0.1% tocopherol) contributes to the reduction of compounds responsible for the product’s colour (mainly carotenoids) determined by spectrophotometric means. However, applied modification does not completely inhibit the Advocaate’s browning during storage. Components formed during non-enzymatic browning, as a result of Maillard’s reaction, are the reason of liqueur’s negative colour change. An emulsion prepared from sodium soap, plant oil, distilled water and methyl orange may be a proper standard of egg liqueur colour.

TitleUSE OF AMINO ACID ANALYSIS FOR ESTIMATION OF BERRY JUICE AUTHENTICITY
AutorAnna Stój, Zdzisław Targoński
Pages61–72
Keywordsamino acids, HPLC, berry fruits, juices, adulterations
AbstractShow abstract
Free amino acid contents: aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, γ-aminobutyric acid, histidine, lysine and arginine in juices of three strawberry varieties (‘Senga’, ‘Ducat’, ‘Marmolada’), raspberry (‘Beskid’, ‘Canby’, ‘Malling Seedling’), black currant (‘Ben Lomond’, ‘Titania’, ‘Ojebyn’) and red currant (‘Rondom’, ‘Jonker’, ‘Holenderska’) were determined in this paper. Examinations were performed in three following years: 1998, 1999 and 2000, by use of HPLC method. Achieved amino acid contents were compared with standard values contained in Code of Practice. Significantly higher aspartic acid and glutamic acid concentrations of standard values published in Code of Practice were found in examined strawberry and black currant juices. Selected amino acids can be used for estimation of berry juices authenticity. Serine, valine and methionine can be the indicator of addition of strawberry juice to raspberry juice, aspartic acid and serine – addition of red currant juice to raspberry juice and aspartic acid and methionine – addition of strawberry juice to black currant juice. Adulteration of black currant juice with red currant juice cannot be detected on the base of amino acid contents.

TitleUSE OF ANTHOCYANIN ANALYSIS FOR DETECTION OF BERRY JUICE ADULTERATIONS
AutorAgnieszka Malik, Anna Stój, Zdzisław Targoński
Pages73–85
Keywordsanthocyanins, HPLC, berry fruits, juices, adulterations
AbstractShow abstract
Chromatographic profiles of anthocyanins in authentic and adulterated black currant and raspberry juices were compared in this paper. HPLC apparatus with DAD detector was used for separation of anthocyanins. Analysis of adulterated juices required optimization of elution conditions. Two types of eluents were applied at gradient: A – 4.5% formic acid and B – 100% acetonitrile. There was detected 30%, 20% and 10% addition of strawberry to raspberry and black currant juices on the basis of pelargonidin-3-glucoside content. Cyanidin-3-xylorutinoside indicated the 30%, 20% and 10% addition of red currant to raspberry and black currant juices. Anthocyanin analysis is an effective method for detection of berry juice adulterations.

TitleCHARACTERISTICS OF CARBOHYDRATE FRACTION OF RYE VARIETIES
AutorWiktor Berski, Halina Gambuś, Jan Krawontka, Peter Liebhard, Anna Nowotna, Werner Praznik, Rafał Ziobro
Pages87–96
Keywordscarbohydrate fractions, starch, rye varieties
AbstractShow abstract
4 Austrian varieties of rye (‘Walstaudenroggen’, ‘Echo’, ‘Schlager’ and ‘Esprit’) and one Polish variety (‘Dańkowskie Złote’) were investigated. There were differences in grains composition as well as in starch properties. Among all varieties, the best one ‘Waldstaudenroggen’ was distinguished due to a high content of soluble carbohydrates, low level of amylose and high molecular mass of starch. Basing on those permises it was found, that the mentioned above properties, influenced high quality of rye variety. Despite growing in different climatical conditions, the Polish variety ‘Dańkowskie Złote’ did not differ in the analysed features from the Austrian ones.

TitleCOMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF MICROBIAL α-AMYLASES AND SCALDED FLOUR ON BREAD QUALITY
AutorBohdan Achremowicz, Marcin Hopek, Rafał Ziobro
Pages97–106
Keywordsscalded flour, α-amylase, baker’s asthma, staling
AbstractShow abstract
Effect of α-amylase from fungi and bacteria on extending bread freshness was compared to this of scalded flour. The dough prepared by using Bulk Fermentation Process was supplemented with bacterial and fungal amylases or scalded flour. After baking and cooling loaf volume was measured and bread mechanical properties were estimated using a texture analyser. Texture studies were then repeated after 1, 3, 4 and 7 days. The obtained results show the relation between dosage of enzyme or scalded flour and bread volume as well as the rate of bread staling. Source of enzyme was found important, because bacterial α-amylase lowered bread quality, while fungal α-amylase extended shelflife not showing detrimental effects. Replacement of 2-6% of flour with scalded flour improved bread volume and retarded crumb firming. The influence on bread was similar to fungal α-amylase. The results prove that substitution of fungal α-amylase by scalded flour is possible. There is a need for such an exchange because in the last years many cases of asthma, induced by occupational exposure to α-amylase derived from Aspergillus oryzae, were reported.

TitleCEREAL BASED FUNCTIONAL FOODS AND NUTRACEUTICALS
AutorSemih Ötles, Özlem Cagindi
Pages107–112
Keywordsfunctional food, nutraceutical, cereal, wheat, buckwheat, oat, barley, flaxseed, psyllium, brown rice
AbstractShow abstract
Wheat, buckwheat, oat, barley, flaxseed, psyllium, brown rice, soy and products are notified the most common cereal based functional foods and nutraceuticals. In this paper, these cereals and their beneficial effects to improve the health, to prevent and reduce the risk factors for several diseases are reviewed.

TitleSYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF CASEIN AND ITS ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSATE IN COMBINATION WITH ASCORBIC ACID AND β-CAROTENE IN MODEL OXIDATION SYSTEMS
AutorAnna Bzducha, Rafał Wołosiak
Pages113–133
Keywordsemulsion, casein, ascorbic acid, β-carotene, autooxidation, lipooxygenase, photosensibilization
AbstractShow abstract
The experiment studied the synergetic effect of casein and its enzymatic hydrolysate in combination with ascorbic acid and β-carotene in slowing down the oxidation of linoleic acid in model oxidation systems. The obtained results indicate that the antioxidant efficiency of applied antioxidants depends on the type of the system in which the lipid oxidation occurs and from the mechanism of oxidation (autooxidation, photosensitization, oxidation by lipooxygenase). For the applied preparations the best antioxidant activities were obtained for emulsion system of linoleic acid in the reaction of the autooxidation, where the co-operation between antioxidants of different physical properties and mechanisms of the antioxidant action in various emulsion phases was possible.

TitleASSESSMENT OF STORAGE LIFE OF WIENER TYPE SAUSAGES PRODUCED WITH THE ADDITION OF AROMATIZED BLOOD PLASMA AND COLOURING AGENTS
AutorKrystyna Krysztofiak
Pages135–142
Keywordssausages with the addition of blood plasma, modification of flavour and colour, storage life
AbstractShow abstract
A deterioration of shelf life may be pertained to a lack of appropriate sensory attributes, or the appearance of a health hazard. Meat products are primarily exposed to the action of microorganisms. The rate of changes during storage, which may lead to microbial contamination of products, and changes in their sensory attributes are affected by the properties and microbial contamination levels of raw materials, the nature and conditions of the technological process, the character of the product and the amount and type of additives. However, in case of the tested wiener type sausages, the quality of which was modified by colouring with cured blood or a betanin solution and which were aromatized using a mixture of spices (lovage root, dried garlic, 1.5:1.0:4.0) no accelerated storage changes were observed in comparison to the reference sausage. The applied modifications of the technological process do not mask storage changes in the analysed sausages. A distinct deterioration of sensory quality characteristics preceded by 3 days the alarm level of microbial contamination of sausages (an increase in the total aerobic bacteria counts to the level above 1 × 106).

TitleTHE EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF ISOASCORBIC ACID AND SODIUM ASCORBATE ON SENSORY QUALITY OF RAW SAUSAGE
AutorAgnieszka Bilska
Pages143–154
Keywordsraw sausage, isoascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, quality, sensory examination
AbstractShow abstract
The effect of the addition of isoascorbic acid and sodium ascorbate on storage changes of raw fermented semi-durable sausages quality was investigated in the study. The applied substances improved colour at cross-section, taste and overall acceptability, and had an advantageous effect on the consumer quality of the raw sausage during 30-day storage. It was also observed that the simultaneous application of isoascorbic acid and sodium ascorbate has a more significant effect on sensory quality attributes than the application of only one of them. On the basis of the obtained results it was found that the best products were obtained for the mixture of isoascorbic acid in the amount of 0.1 to 0.4 g/kg batter and 0.5 g sodium ascorbate per 1 kg of batter.

TitleMINERAL COMPOSITION, SHELF-LIFE AND SENSORY ATTRIBUTES OF FORTIFIED ‘KUNUZAKI’ BEVERAGE
AutorFrancis Olawale Abulude, Mary Omofolarin Ogunkoya, Vincent Adeniyi Oni
Pages155–162
Keywords‘kunuzaki’ beverage, fortification, additives, minerals, organoleptic attributes, non-alcoholic
AbstractShow abstract
‘Kunuzaki’ is one of the nourishing and non-alcoholic beverages consumed in Nigeria. The processing involved washing of the grain (millet or maize or sorghum), parboiling, grinding, sieving, cooking, cooling and storage after production. In this work, the sample was fortified with vitamin C, calcium, iron, flavour and preservations. The control and fortified samples were subjected to mineral determination and organoleptic tests using standard methods. The shelf-life span of the samples was examined. From the results, the samples fortified with calcium and iron produced the highest calcium (64.8-73.5 mg·kg-1) and Fe (8.1-9.2 mg·kg-1) values. The sample fortified with citric acid had the longest span (14 days) when stored at an ambient temperature. The best overall result was obtained in sample that contained all the additives.

TitleASSESSMENT OF MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS CONSUMPTION AMONG ADOLESCENTS AGED 13-15 ACCORDING TO THEIR PLACE OF RESIDENCE
AutorMarzena Jeżewska-Zychowicz
Pages163–171
Keywordsmilk, dairy products, daily intake, frequency of consumption, adolescents
AbstractShow abstract
The objective of the study was to evaluate the frequency of eating of dairy products and the daily intake of these products in the population of 449 persons aged 13-15, representing rural and urban areas. The frequency of eating and the average daily intake of milk and its products were insufficient. The girls and the participants from the rural area consumed dairy products more seldom and in lower amounts in comparison with the boys and the participants from the urban area, respectively.

TitleASSESSMENT OF CONSUMPTION OF “LIGHT” FOOD BY STUDENTS
AutorEwa Flaczyk, Joanna Kobus, Józef Korczak
Pages173–181
Keywords“light” food, consumption, obesity, students
AbstractShow abstract
One of factors which could possibly reduce the trend for the increasing incidence of obesity could be a decrease in energy value of consumed meals through the introduction of “light” food into the daily diet. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of consumption of “light” food. Survey studies were conducted among 200 students (51% women) in the city of Poznań. For young people the most preferred “light” products were yoghurts and soft drinks. Differences were shown in the preferences and frequencies of consumption between the group of women and men.